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  • AI advances

    1970s-early 1990s

    BKG 9.8 & Hans Berliner

    1979 — BKG 9.8 (Carnegie Mellon University) defeated Luigi Villa (human world champion) 7-1 in an 8-game backgammon match


    1994 — Chinook (University of Alberta) defeated Marion Tinsley (human world champion) in a 6-game checkers match
    NOTE: Tinsley withdrew after 6 draws

    Mid-late 1990s

    Deep Blue & Garry Kasparov

    1996 — Garry Kasparov (human world champion) defeated Deep Blue (IBM) 4-2 in a 6-game chess match
    1997 — Deep Blue (IBM) defeated Garry Kasparov (human world champion) 3½-2½ in a 6-game chess match

    2000s-early 2010s


    2005 — Jack (Kuijf & Kuijf Software) defeated 3 out of 7 pairs (including the human European champions) in contract bridge

    Watson (IBM)

    2011 — Watson (IBM) defeated Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings (best human players with highest earnings and longest winning streak) in Jeopardy!

    Late 2010s

    AlphaGo & Lee Sedol

    2016 — AlphaGo (Google/DeepMind) defeated Lee Sedol (one of the best human players) 4-1 in a 5-game Go match
    2017 — AlphaGo Master (Google/DeepMind) defeated Ke Jie (top-ranked human Go player) 3-0 in a 3-game Go match
    2017 — AlphaZero (Google/DeepMind) defeated Stockfish (version 8) 64-36 in a 100-game chess match
    2017 — AlphaZero (Google/DeepMind) defeated Elmo 91-9 in a 100-game shogi match
    2017 — AlphaZero (Google/DeepMind) defeated AlphaGo Zero (Google/DeepMind) 60-40 in a 100-game go match
    2018 — AlphaZero (Google/DeepMind) defeated Stockfish (version 8) 574½-425½ in a 1,000-game chess match


    Into the future

    Katja Grace

    1. According to a survey of algorithmic progress (Grace, 2013):
    2. Chess programs tend to improve by around 50 Elo points per year;
    3. Go programs tend to improve by a single stone per year

    4. Image source: Denis Villeneuve's Arrival

      'I always wondered how it would be if a superior species landed on earth and showed us how they played chess. Now I know.'
      - Peter Heine Nielsen (grandmaster) on AlphaZero