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    Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov
    (Game 1 in 1996)

    1. At the moment and despite the best efforts of the entire AI research tradition, we are at the level of Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
    2. Both Deep Blue (IBM) and AlphaGo (Google/DeepMind) are at the level of ANI
    3. ANI refers to AI systems that can only deal with either a specific task or a limited and pre-defined range of tasks
    4. ANI will be unable to pass the Coffee Test

    The Coffee Test

      According to the Coffee Test (attributed to Steve Wozniak):
    1. An AI system must enter a new and unfamiliar house, get directions, and make a decent cup of coffee

    2. The AI system must be able to complete the following subtasks:
      1. Identify the relevant ingredients;
      2. Locate a mug;
      3. Figure out how to use the coffee-making machine;
      4. Add water and ingredients in the right proportions in the mug;
      5. Brew the coffee with the coffee-making machine


    The holy grail

    1. Human-level AI (HLAI) or Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is often described as the prize or holy grail that AI researchers are questing for
    2. HLAI is defined as an intellect that is able to do most of the things that human beings can do, especially those things that are thought to require intelligence (Nilsson, 2010)

    3. The Employment Test (Nilsson, 2005):
    4. An AI system passes the Employment Test just in case it is able to perform jobs that are ordinarily performed by human beings
    5. For Nilsson, HLAI or AGI will be able to perform tasks that we now pay human beings to perform

    The Employment Test

    When will HLAI be attained?

    Source: Bostrom (2014)

    The median date of HLAI arrival: c. 2050


    Jacob T. Schwartz

    1. Since man's near-monopoly of all higher forms of intelligence has been one of the most basic facts of human existence throughout the past history of this planet, such developments would clearly create a new economics, a new sociology, and a new history.
      - Jacob T. Schwartz (1987)

    2. ASI has been defined as an intellect that is much smarter than the best human brains in practically every field (e.g. scientific creativity, general wisdom, social skills, etc)

    3. Forms of ASI:
    4. Speed superintelligence — An AI system that can do ALL that a human intellect can do, but much faster
    5. Collective superintelligence — An AI system that is composed of a large number of smaller intellects such that the system's overall performance across many very general domains vastly outstrips that of any current cognitive system
    6. Quality superintelligence — An AI system that is at least as fast as a human mind and vastly qualitatively smarter

    1. In short, the rise of powerful AI will be either the best, or the worst thing, ever to happen to humanity. We do not yet know which'
      - Stephen Hawking (2016) at the launch of the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence